The people, science and technology behind discovery

Subscribe to the Magazine

Get new articles sent directly to
your mailbox.


Join the network

Twitter Updates Group Forum

Earth Explorer is an online source of news, expertise and applied knowledge for resource explorers and earth scientists. Sponsored by Geosoft.


News & Views

News Archive

December 7, 2016

Geosoft introduces IP and resistivity inversion in VOXI Earth Modelling

Geosoft has added induced polarization and resistivity data inversion to its VOXI Earth Modelling 3D inversion software service. Geoscientists are now able to create detailed 3D models of conductivity and chargeability from IP and resistivity survey data with VOXI. The resulting models can assist in interpreting and targeting regions for mineral and environmental applications...

December 5, 2016

Mexico's Deepwater Round Exceeds Expectations

Some of the world's biggest oil companies showed up Dec. 5 and agreed to invest on the Mexican side of the Gulf of Mexico, proving that deepwater exploration still has a pulse despite challenging market conditions...

November 30, 2016

Magnetic inversion results for Ngamiland available for download

A regional-scale geophysical inversion of magnetic field data in the Ngamiland region of northwestern Botswana is now available for download from the Botswana Geoscience Portal, a partnership initiative of the Botswana Geoscience Institute, industry sponsors and Geosoft...

November 30, 2016

LIGO Resumes Search for Gravitational Waves

After a series of upgrades, the twin detectors of LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, have turned back on and resumed their search for ripples in the fabric of space and time known as gravitational waves. LIGO transitioned from their engineering test runs to full science observations at 8 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on November 30...

November 9, 2016

International Volcano Scientists Unite

For the first time, the United States will host the international Volcano Observatory Best Practices workshop, previously held only in Italy. The workshop will take place this month in Vancouver, Washington. It is designed specifically for volcano observatories around the world and their staff to exchange ideas and best practices with each other...

October 4, 2016

USGS Assesses Mineral Potential for Sagebrush Habitats in Six Western States

USGS has completed a comprehensive assessment and inventory of potential mineral resources covering approximately 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming...

October 3, 2016

Uganda Targets Up to U.S.$100 Million for Mineral Exploration

Uganda is well endowed with mineral resources and, like many naturally-gifted African countries, is becoming keen on ensuring that these resources play a transformative role in its long-term structural transformation dream - the Vision 2040...

September 9, 2016

Small-Scale Fishers Get A Big Boost With First-Of-Its Kind Impact Investment Fund

Conservation organization Rare announces the Meloy Fund for Small-Scale Fisheries at Our Ocean Conference. The Global Environment Facility, one of the largest funders of conservation worldwide, will be investing $6 million into the fund...

September 1, 2016

Scientists take to the skies to track West African pollution

Scientists operating research aircraft over West Africa have detected organic materials in the atmosphere over a number of urban areas, contributing to concerns of the rise in pollution across the region...

August 17, 2016

New IGS Xplore prospectivity maps for Botswana

International Geoscience Services have released a series of base metal prospectivity maps for the Ngamiland District of northwestern Botswana using free geodata available on the recently-launched Botswana Geoscience Portal, hosted by Geosoft. The maps identify favorable areas for copper, zinc and lead mineralization using geological, geochemical and geophysical datasets downloaded directly from the portal.

August 11, 2016

NexGen Makes New High Grade Discovery

NexGen Energy reported the discovery of a new high grade zone of mineralization 4.7 km northeast of the Arrow Deposit as part of an on-going summer drilling program on its 100% owned, Rook I property, Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan...

August 10, 2016

Rampion UXO Disposal to Take Place This Week

E.ON has confirmed that the two unexploded devices, detected along the Rampion offshore cable route will be safely disposed this week following the consultation with the Marine Management Organisation...

August 9, 2016

Diamonds In The Rough: E&Ps Find New Reserves In Mature Basins

The oil industry’s history demonstrates clearly that new plays and prospects have long been found in mature basins that were thought to be well on the way to being squeezed dry. Through the acquisition of new data, developing new concepts and coming up with fresh interpretations, long-producing basins around the world from the North Sea to Malaysia have continued to reveal new riches...

August 8, 2016

Northern Shield Identifies High Quality VTEM Targets at Séquoi

Northern Shield Resources announced the results of the interpretation and modelling of the VTEM survey from the Séquoi Property in the Labrador Trough of Quebec . Séquoi is owned 100% by Northern Shield and is being explored for Noril'sk style Ni-Cu-PGE massive sulphides. After geophysical modelling and interpretation of the VTEM data from Séquoi, six VTEM anomalies of significant interest have been identified...

August 3, 2016

Rio Tinto tailors big data drive to copper

Rio Tinto will put the weight of an exploration big data push and its newly-formed Growth and Innovation group behind its desire to identify a "tier 1" copper asset. Speaking at the annual Diggers & Dealers conference in Kalgoorlie, Growth and Innovation group executive Stephen McIntosh said Australia was "overdue for a tier 1" mineral discovery of any type...

August 1, 2016

Tetra Tech Awarded $200 Million Navy CLEAN Contract

Tetra Tech announced that it has been awarded a $200 million, single-award contract by Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Atlantic. Through the Comprehensive Long-term Environmental Action Navy (CLEAN) contract, Tetra Tech will provide environmental engineering support services to installations within the NAVFAC Atlantic Area of Responsibility...

May 3, 2016

NATO Science for Peace and Security (SPS), MODUM Partners announce "Young Scientist Summer School on Sea Dumped Chemical Weapons"

This international project cooperates closely with CHEMSEA (Search and Assessment of Chemical Weapons) Project for and sharing and knowledge transfer...

April 12, 2016

Monday mad rush for gold stocks

Renewed optimism about the outlook for gold saw investors pile back into gold stocks, pushing many stock to 52-week highs in heavy volumes...

April 11, 2016

Medgold Resources: Continues to Expand the Boticas Gold Project, Portugal; Proposes $200,000 Private Placement

Medgold Resources is pleased to announce new assay results from contiguous rock-chip sampling from the Limarinho South zone at its Boticas gold project in Portugal, which include a highlight of 6.0m @ 5.7 g/t Au...

April 8, 2016

De-carbonizing our energy sector

Nuclear energy currently provides around 11 percent of the world's electricity. China, the European Union, the United States, India, Russia, South Korea, and other nations’ have major existing fleets...

April 1, 2016

Follow-Up Drilling Results Indicate Wide Gold Zones at Hendricks Gold Discovery

Gascoyne Resources Limited announced that it has received the final assay results from the 10,000 metre aircore exploration drilling programme...

March 26, 2016

The Oil Market Is Finally Hitting Its Breaking Point

After a significant reduction in investments over the past two years, oil companies can no longer overcome the production declines from legacy wells...

March 15, 2016

N-Sea Expands into the French Offshore Wind Industry

Subsea IMR provider, N-Sea, has signed a letter of intent with CERES Recherches & Expertise Sous-Marine and TechSub Industrie Environement, to provide subsea survey, installation and remediation services to the French offshore wind industry...

March 9, 2016

PDAC 2016 Convention Exceeds 22,000 Attendees

Optimism and opportunity abounded at the PDAC 2016 Convention of The Prospectors & Developers Association of Canada in spite of recent industry challenges...

March 3, 2016

6 Alpha Launches EOD Contracting Division

6 Alpha Associates, a specialist risk consultancy practice, with expertise in the assessment and management of unexploded ordnance, has launched a dedicated explosive ordnance disposal division...

Was that a tsunami or a hurricane?

New research into overwash deposits is improving our predictive understanding of tsunamis and hurricane events to help inform coastal systems response.

by Graham Chandler on November 5, 2013 applied

Pilarczyk, at right, with McMaster University former graduate student Simon Donato searching for evidence of older tsunamis that have impacted the Omani coastline.  Ras al'Had Sabkah, Oman, Arabian Peninsula, February 2007. 

On November 28, 1945, a subduction zone earthquake measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale occurred off the Makran Coast of what is now Pakistan. The resulting tsunami struck not only Pakistan but Iran, India and Oman with wave heights ranging from 2 to 13 metres. More than 4,000 people were killed, making it the second-deadliest tsunami ever to have occurred in the Indian Ocean – exceeded only by the Indonesian event of December 26, 2004, which killed upwards of 280,000.

Understanding such past disasters can go a long way toward predicting comparable ones in the future. Problem is, researchers lack sufficient eyewitness accounts and the body of geological evidence is small.

Fortunately attempts to analyze overwash deposits (the flow of water and sediment that does not return directly to its source) are proving helpful. This approach, which considers how storms, tsunamis and sea-level change have altered coastal systems, is the brainchild of Jessica Pilarczyk, who is currently doing post-doctoral research at the University of Pennsylvania’s Sea Level Research Lab.

[Click to enlarge]

Identifying and characterizing the 1945 Makran tsunami in Sur Lagoon, Oman.  Particle Size Distribution (PSD) plots created in Geosoft Oasis were used to detect subtle differences between tsunami overwash and normal lagoon sediments.  Species of foraminifera, along with their test (shell) size and condition, support particle size findings and provide additional insight into the source of sediment (e.g., offshore).  (Source:  Pilarczyk, J.E., Reinhardt, E.G., 2012. Testing foraminiferal taphonomy as a tsunami indicator in a shallow arid system lagoon: Sur, Sultanate of Oman.  Marine Geology 295-298, 128-136.)  

[Click to enlarge]

A comparison between the 2011 Tohoku-oku and A.D. 869 Jogan tsunami desposits in Japan.  PSDs highlight key similarities (and differences) between the two tsunamis and reinforce that both were of similar magnitude; the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, the largest tsunami ever recorded, in fact had a predecessor.  (Source:  Pilarczyk, J.E., Horton, B.P., Witter, R.C., Vane, C.H., Goff, J., Chagué-Goff, C., 2012. Sedimentary and foraminiferal evidence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami on the Sendai coastal plain, Japan. Sedimentary Geology 282, 78-89.)

Pilarczyk began by developing a method for detecting paleo-tsunamis using foraminifera (mircro-organisms) and mollusks and their taphonomic, or decay-related, characteristics. The latter include angularity, colour, size, fragmentation, and so on. It wasn’t long before the method proved successful in Sur Lagoon, Oman, which contains stratigraphic evidence of the 1945 Makran tsunami. Similar studies of overwash at Anegada in the British Virgin Islands are shedding light on tsunami threats in the eastern Caribbean islands.

A recent test involved sampling inland deposits from the 2011 Japanese tsunami and comparing them with underlying sediments deposited by an older event in the same area, namely the Jogan tsunami of AD 869. The methodology consisted of removing organics from the sediment samples, homogenizing them, and identifying foraminifera taxonomy and condition. Grain-size analyses were done using a laser-diffraction particle size analyzer. Then, grain-size values for all samples were converted to the Wentworth-Phi Scale, interpolated, gridded, and plotted as particle size distributions (PSDs) in Geosoft Oasis montaj.

“Using Oasis montaj provided the best way to effectively display detailed high-resolution particle size data,” says Pilarczyk. The software makes it possible to collapse hundreds of individual sediment profile graphs into one easy-to-interpret PSD plot, which in turn allows for the evaluation of subtle but important trends in the sediment record. “PSDs created in Geosoft Oasis montaj have enabled my research group to delineate previously undocumented tsunami deposits from Oman, the Caribbean, Japan, Sumatra, Chile, French Polynesia, and Alaska,” Pilarczyk notes.

In the Japanese test, researchers were able to discriminate between the tsunami deposit and the underlying soil because of the presence of recent and fossil foraminifera. There was also a pronounced change in grain size, which became finer upward and landward. Moreover, the PSDs showed the distinct separation of sand units deposited by both the 2011 and AD 869 tsunamis from the finer soils.

Pilarczyk and her research group are now assessing the risk of tsunamis to the Tokyo region by locating and interpreting geologic evidence of older events preserved along the coastline. “Anticipated outcomes of this are significant and include the first-ever geologic documentation of tsunamis impacting Tokyo,” she notes.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of foraminifera indicating varying test (shell) condition.  Fossil and unaltered (e.g., no evidence of corrosion and abrasion) foraminifera are indicators of tsunami overwash.

Meanwhile in Indonesia, she is using the technique to map out modern foraminiferal distributions off northern Sumatra so that they can be compared to a series of overwash deposits found in a coastal cave. Similar research is under way in Chile and the South Pacific islands of Wallis and Futuna.

The technique is also of interest to climatologists. “Climate projection models are increasingly using geologic evidence of sea-level change and storm frequency to constrain their models and provide more accurate projections,” says Pilarczyk.

 

 

 

 

 

 


View all articles »